return to homepage Webmasters !
Distributors !


FAQ about:

Fujara - overtone bass flute range:

Fujara - overtone bass flute tuning:


Fujara is basically a very large, 5 to 6 feet long fipple overtone bass flute, with 3 side holes and a parallel smaller tube, which supplies air to the top of flute.

What is the Fujara (overtone bass flute) range?

Fujara is designed to play nicely starting with its second overtone up to its eighth overtone compassing thus a range of 2 octaves of diatonic major and partly mixolydic scale.

As an example we will use modern Fujara in key of G :
The compass of Fujara in key of G is 4 octaves ranging from G(G2) - g(G3) - g¹(G4) - g²(G5) - g³(G6).

  • G - g is the lowest Fujara octave and is NOT PLAYABLE on all Fujara flutes. It has 4 notes only G(G2)-A(A2)-B(B2)-c(C3).
    While Fujara is an harmonic flute, it is not designed to play in its lowest octave so it is not considered a flaw when its lowest octave G(G2) to first overtone g(G3) is took quiet/weak or not present at all.
  • g(G3) - g¹(G4) - g²(G5): In this two basic fujara octaves, starting with 2nd overtone g and ending in 8th overtone g², modern Fujara is capable of playing seven-note major diatonic scale by fingering the 3 side fujara holes, see the fujara flute fingering diagrams.
  • g²(G5) - g³(G6): The highest fujara octave is played merely by OVERBLOWING the overtones, where the height of tone is decided by the strength of the in-blown air. Thus the fourth - highest fujara octave represents a natural harmonic scale. It has 8 notes: g²(G5)-a²(A5)-b²(H5)-c³(C6)-d³(D6)-e³(E6)-f³(F6)-f#³(F#6)-g³(G6) and is merely used by playing the typical fujara ornament - Scatter, usually at the beginning of the fujara song.

Traditionally, many fujara melodies on G key fujara (major) start with d1 and develop itself in these two basic, easily playable fujara octaves (g - g¹ - g²), mostly around the middle of the Fujara scale (d¹ - d² myxolydian mode). Sometimes the melody is played on the lowest fujara notes creating thus special effect called "humming". Therefore, we call these two middle octaves "basic fujara octaves".

Still, fujara can play notes below and upper than of these two traditionally used basic octaves, but these notes are harder to get and they are rarely used.

What overtones is Fujara capable to produce?

Fujara can play easily and nicely in 7 harmonics / overtone levels (all fingering holes closed) purely by overblowing the fujara. That means one can play simple melodies by over-blowing only. Moreover, in combination with simple fingering technique, fujara can play more than 21 various notes in the range of more than 2 and half octaves. Half shading and subtle breath variations give even more possibilities.

How it is possible to play a complete diatonic major scale with 3 holes only ?

Fujara is an harmonic flute, so it is mainly played in upper registers instead of the fundamental, bass notes.

"The fujara, as many flutes, is an open-open tube. that means that it can play several notes by overblowing -the narrow the tube the more the tones can it overblow. The lowest note is called fundamental.

These overblown notes (modes) follow the rule that are integer multiples of the fundamental, say, if you have a fundamental of 100Hz, the modes will be 200, 300, 400...and so on.
That means in music, that if you have a fundamental G2, the 2nd mode will be G3, the third D3, the fourth G4...and a succession of notes called harmonics.
Between the fundamental and 2nd mode of vibration is a wide musical distance (an octave) But notice that between the 2nd and 3rd, the musical interval is not so large. As you go up into the harmonics, the distances are shorter.
So, the clue to build a harmonic flute is to inhibit the first fundamental mode, and then make tone holes to cover the musical gap between 2nd (G)and 3rd(D) You need A, B and C. ..three tone holes!

So, blow the 2nd, G3, the first note of the instrument, uncover 1st tone hole and get A, 2nd hole and get B, 3rd tone hole and get C, cover all again, overblow, and get D ...then, open 1st, and get E (3rd mode of A), 2nd for F#, 3rd for G...The progression is theoretically infinite. Other factors start to play a role by inhibiting such high modes (called cut off frequency)."

Article taken from:

Fujara tuning

Thanks to the Fujara construction and overtone playing technique, fujara tends to be naturally in tune with itself. Thus, fast any good sounding fujara is well suited for solo play.

There are two approaches in Fujara flute tuning, traditional and modern :

  • On traditional Fujara, its 3 fingering holes are placed on the main fujara pipe evenly, producing thus a traditional Fujara mixolydical scale with typical fujara "off" notes.
  • On modern Fujara the placement of the 3 fujara fingering holes is adjusted to play major seven-note diatonic scale in its 2 basic fujara octaves (g(G3) - g¹(G4) - g²(G5)).

Fujara is an overtone instrument and plays natural overtone series as described on this chart. With all holes closed, by changing of pressure of in blown air only, EVERY FUJARA (traditional or modern) plays natural overtone series: on a G fujara - (G2), G3, D3, G4, H4, D5, F5, G5 etc.

Due to the Fujara's big dimension, as the wood changes with the weather, so changes also the fujara's pitch. Cold and or wet weather can lower fujara's basic pitch by 8%, extreme hot and warm weather can higher fujara's basic pitch by 8%
On collapsiblle fujara it is possible to adjust the basic tuning by lenghtening or shortening the main fujara pipe in its tenon joint. Thus, you can regulate the fujara basic pitch without any problems by appr. 10 %.

All the following answers will relate to modern Fujara flutes only »

Are Fujara bass overtone flutes tuned with a tuning fork?

Yes, all fujara flutes featured at graded with 3, 4 or 5 stars in tuning category are tuned using electronic tuner or tuning fork C=440 Hz: tuning: , .

Are the Fujara flutes graded according its tuning?

Yes, all the fujara flutes featured at are graded according its tuning:
The best grade for standard fujara in this category are 4 stars only, while until recently there were no Fujara which diatonic major scale was tuned flawlessly. Only our recent development of precisely tuned Folkart Slovakia FuYara changed this mere fact, and we, for the first time in the history of, allowed 5 stars () in tuning category.

  • - Modern Fujara: fundamental tuned precisely, all the notes in the Fujara major diatonic scale (g - g) are well tempered - FS FuYara
  • - Modern Fujara: fundamental tuned precisely, all the notes in the Fujara major diatonic scale are well in tune, though not perfect.
  • - Modern Fujara: fundamental is well tuned, there are some fujara typical -off- notes in its scale. Recommended for playing of traditional fujara melodies.
  • - Traditional Fujara flute: fundamental tuned precisely, traditional fujara scale best suited for playing traditional fujara melodies. Fujara is well in tune with itself as well as with other traditionally tuned Fujara flutes of the same pitch playing traditional fujara scale.
  • - Traditional Fujara flute: fundamental not tuned, traditional fujara scale best suited for playing traditional fujara melodies. Fujara is well in tune with itself but not with other instruments. Recommended for solo playing only!

Thanks to the Fujara construction and overtone playing technique, fujara bass flute tends to be naturally in tune with itself. Therefore almost any good sounding fujara is well suited for solo play.

For playing in ensemble or music band together with other "western tuned" instruments, fujaras marked with 4 and especially 5 stars in its tuning category should be preferred: tuning: , , .

Is the Fujara overtone flute scale tuned exactly to western standards?

Traditionally, Fujara overtone flute was an instrument of Slovak shepherd's. Since shepherds were all alone and played for themselves and their sheep, there was no need to tune the Fujara flute to any key. Fujara was mostly a solo instrument.

However, modern Fujara flute is often played in ensemble and is tuned to many pitches. Find out more about fujara pitches. More and more emphasis is being put to precise fujara scale and tuning.

Folkart Slovakia has thrived to tune the fujara as perfect as possible and persuaded all cooperating makers to use electronic frequency tuner!

After many trials and errors we have succeeded to make a well tempered fujara - FS FuYara, what was in Slovakia commonly thought as impossible ! Fujara with 5 stars in tuning is for the first time in the history finally possible - FS FuYara, tuning:
» impeccable tuning of two basic fujara octaves to well tempered diatonic major:
For G key fujara: g(G3) - g¹(G4) - g²(D5) «

Still, due to Fujara flute's grand dimensions (1.7 meter / 6 feet), as the wood is working in time, the fujara pitch changes slightly even in accordance with weather (humidity and temperature), ageing, oiling, etc ... On the other hand the fujara is very dynamic flute so you can change the tone height by half-fingering and slight changes of breath too.

With FS collapsible fujara flutes, you have even more possibilities to fine tune your fujara according to your actual needs exactly at the place - just shorten or lengthen your fujara length by folding/unfolding it in its tenon joints. By moving its bottom part with 3 tactual holes, you can even adjust its whole scale. All that within a few seconds ...

| about us| how to order| payment & shipment| trading terms|
| feedback| currency convertor| tell a friend|
return to homepage contact info, e-mail and more how to order, shipment, warranty and return policy read the opinions of others and share yours, highlights everything about fujara flute gallery of available instruments listen to available audio samples learn how to play the Fujara flute learn about fujara related events, invitations, and workshops